The main purpose of this study was, first, to analyse the morphology of seeds of Phoenix spp. We then analysed seed morphological diversity in P. The other objective was to develop a methodology for assigning different commercial seed samples and archaeological materials to determined morphotypes as a tool for their identification at the species level. Three hundred and sixty-four seed samples seeds were analysed: Information was systematized in a crude matrix with units representing seed samples and 67 descriptors.
The main purpose of this study was, first, to analyse the morphology of seeds of Phoenix spp. We then analysed seed morphological diversity in P. The other objective was to develop a methodology for assigning different commercial seed samples and archaeological materials to determined morphotypes as a tool for their identification at the species level.
Three hundred and sixty-four seed samples seeds were analysed: Information was systematized in a crude matrix with units representing seed samples and 67 descriptors. Descriptors are frequencies, in percentage, for each of the 41 qualitative states and of the 26 classes that were recognized for the quantitative parameters. Analyses proceeded sequentially, starting with modern samples consisting of type specimens and botanically verified specimens.
Eight species show characteristic seeds and are clearly assigned to morphotypes [ P. In parallel, fossil and archaeobotanical samples were analysed. There is no clear separation between fossil and archaeological samples, between different periods of the archaeological samples or geographical origins.
Combination of modern, fossil and archaeological seed results in the same analysis revealed that it is possible to allocate archaeological and fossil materials to morphotypes shared with modern living Phoenix spp. All archaeobotanical samples could be classified in groups with modern seed samples.
The assignment of archaeobotanical samples was made, mainly, to morphotypes of P. However, some samples were assigned to morphotypes of P. Archaeological seeds were not allocated to group 19, containing the samples of P. It appears that species Bronze Age tools found in Frankfurt dating from 1200 800 BC Picture of Archaeologisches Museum as P.
The morphology of two of the three Eocene samples Phoenicites occidentalis and Phoenix Bronze Age tools found in Frankfurt dating from 1200 800 BC Picture of Archaeologisches Museum is that of P. Attribution and dating of these samples need to be carefully reviewed. Apparently the great diversity of P. With the currently available evidence, Bronze Age tools found in Frankfurt dating from 1200 800 BC Picture of Archaeologisches Museum cannot exclude a group ancestral to P.
In parallel, another group ancestral to P. The genus Phoenix L. Arecaceae comprises 13 Barrow, to 20 Beccari, species Meet Women From Baumholder Dating App for Singles mostly tropical, dioecious palms with solitary stems, rarely branched, or, in some species, with a short underground stem, ending in a crown of 20— pinnate leaves.
The phylogenetic isolation of Phoenix has long been established. Phoenix differs from related genera of Coryphoideae by having pinnate rather than palmate leaves.
Although firmly anchored in Coryphoideae, Phoenix appears to be on a deep branch in phylogenetic trees, being sister to the large, pantropical tribe Trachycarpeae Dransfield et al. Although hybrid origins have been proposed, molecular data have demonstrated that P. Recent genetic data Fran phylogenetic data based on DNA sequences of the plastid loci psbZ — trnfM and rpl16 — rps3 indicate a strong geographical structure of the genetic diversity of the date palm at all scales local, regional, global and the importance of isolation and intraspecific gene flow in shaping the present day agrobiodiversity.
Although there is no evidence of interspecific hybridization in the cultivated gene pool, the status of P. Fruits dates normally develop after pollination, resulting in dates with seeds.
Unpollinated female flowers may develop seedless, poor-quality fruits that are normal in other respects. Date fruits are ellipsoidal to ovoid or almost cylindrical. Phoenix seeds are typically elliptical and slightly flattened dorsiventrally and have a longitudinal furrow on the ventral face. On the dorsal face, the operculum or micropyle appears at the middle point of the seed, although, often, it can be slightly displaced towards the proximal or distal end.
Only one species, P. Problems during pollination and fruit development can lead to the incompletely developed or abnormal seeds. Date fruits and their seeds present a set of characters that are used as descriptors for the systematics of Phoenix spp. However, seed morphology is taxonomically relevant and several nomenclatural types of Phoenix spp. The shape of Phoenix seeds is characteristic and allows determination of both fossil and archaeobotanical carbonized, desiccated or Bronze Age tools found in Frankfurt dating from 1200 800 BC Picture of Archaeologisches Museum materials at the generic level.
However, in routine identifications of palaeobotanical or archaeobotanical date seeds, it is uncommon for attributions to proceed beyond the genus, generating a debate about whether they are wild or cultivated Terral et al. Phoenix seeds were found in numerous archaeological sites from North Africa and the Near East, in levels from the 8th millennium BP onwards.
In Ancient Egypt, dates were eaten fresh, dried and used in magical compounds. Phoenix is a genus of wild and cultivated plants that can be found in a range of different natural from mangroves to pine forests and anthropogenic habitats from sandy beaches to oases. This genus is notoriously difficult to classify to the species level based on incomplete herbarium specimens and, even in botanic gardens, outside their native habitats, individuals of Phoenix can be seriously challenging to identify.
Wildpret are systematically exploited for their sweet sap to produce a concentrate known as palm honey and the palms are often planted for that purpose in their natural areas, making it difficult to distinguish scattered crops and natural and feral populations. The other species are often found in cultivation as ornamental palms or as rare specimens for collectors.
Several species were originally fully or in part described from specimens grown in botanical gardens and collections, including P. Kolkata, India and P. Therefore, it is important, in sequence, to solve taxonomic problems and difficulties of typification and then to proceed with analysing variability in populations of Phoenixboth wild and cultivated.
The first detailed descriptions of Phoenix seeds P. Gaertner did not, however, use any character based on the dimensions of the seeds Table 1. Historical review of the use of seed Bronze Age tools found in Frankfurt dating from 1200 800 BC Picture of Archaeologisches Museum characters and states in Phoenix. B, breadth; D, depth; L, length; TD, totalized dimensions. Beccari situates the ventral face of the seed in the zone of the micropyle, and the dorsal face opposite in the zone of the raphe; however, for Iossi et al.
The first comprehensive monograph of Phoenixpublished by Beccariused the position of the micropyle as a character for distinguishing species. In that work the number of characters quantitative and qualitative used to describe seeds is 15, totalling 38 states. The most recent monograph of Phoenix by Barrow provides much less detailed descriptions of seeds, using only ten characters and 20 states Table 1.
The need to create a set of descriptors to distinguish date palm P. Nixonfor example, used only 11 characters, with a total of 34 states; as quantitative descriptors he used only length and width. However, raphe, micropyle position, mucro and different superficial processes were excluded from this analysis.
Morphological demarcation of Fran within Phoenix involves numerous vegetative, floral, fruit and seed characters. Phoenix paludosa is easily distinguished by its leaflet discolour abaxial lamina surface greyish and its seeds with a basal embryo. Leaflets with abaxial ramenta are typically present in P. In the group with ramenta, the few herbarium specimens available of P. Phoenix roebelenii is characterized by its small size stems to 2—3 m tall, leaves to 1.
Acute to acuminate staminate petal apices with jagged margins are typical of P. The prominent horn-shaped swelling of the rachilla, subtending each fruit, is exclusive to P. Leaflets four-ranked, seed glossy, chestnut brown and stems short rarely to 4 m are characteristic of P.
Leaflets not four-ranked, seed matt, greyish and stems short Fran to 4 m are characteristic to P. The group of robust tree palms with solitary trunks includes P.
However, solitary stemmed P. Clustering robust palms, often with basal suckers, include P. Species in this last group do not appear clearly differentiated and there is discussion of their affinities and status Gros-Balthazard, Hybridization is a phenomenon considered to be common among Phoenix Fran.
However, Online dating site for filipina gratis singlebörse deutschland juist allocation on morphological Fran of individuals or populations to a particular hybrid is difficult and often erroneous.
Morphometric approaches are postulated as a tool to identify hybrids Gros-Balthazard, However, natural interspecific hybridization has never been reported Gros-Balthazard, Experimental pollination of several P. Although seed development was noted initially, the breakdown of endosperm development was evident later on. Therefore, not all possible crosses between Phoenix spp. Interspecific pollination events may influence the dimensions of fruits and seeds as shown in different metaxenia experiments.
Therefore, it is necessary to differentiate between hybrid seeds modified by metaxenia and seeds produced by hybrid female individuals of known parentage.
The purpose of the present study is, first, to analyse morphological characters of seeds from Phoenix spp. We also analysed seed morphological diversity in P. Other objectives are to develop a methodology to assign different commercial seed samples and archaeological materials, to determined morphotypes as a tool for their identification to the ihk paderborn speeddating Fran.
This will contribute to reduce the impact of misidentification in horticulture and will produce a framework for identification and interpretation of archaeobotanical Phoenix materials.
Date palm seeds are rarely preserved as such in carpological collections or as herbarium specimens. For example, of the sheets of Phoenix in the herbarium of the National Museum of Natural History of Paris Franceonly 13 contained fruits mature enough to be able to extract seeds that could be analysed but would destroy the fruitand only one contained free and abundant seeds; in the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Wie kann ich eine frau kennenlernen, only eight of 87 specimens had ripe fruits.
When whole date fruits are preserved in herbarium specimens, the extraction of seeds for study is not possible without destroying the fruit; therefore, we only studied seeds which were free and clean. Finally, commercial samples of dates and horticultural seeds were acquired for comparison. The species-level nomenclature Table 2 follows Barrow and Govaerts et al.
Phoenix iberica was described from the Chicamo area Abanilla, Murcia40 km south-west of Elche, Spain. Originally it was based upon one small population of spontaneous palms growing in a single ravine, and scattered individuals living along the Chicamo River, but interspersed with individuals, or small clumps, of the local varieties of P.
This taxon has not yet been found among the thousands of date palms in Elche. Vegetatively, they are similar to P. The authorship of P. Wildpret verden partnersuche Chabaud, because Chabaud himself did not accept the new disco bekanntschaften in the original publication and published a description of the species by Hermann Wildpret.
The type of P. Barrow and Govaerts et al.
Earring Date: 3rd century Culture: Eastern Germanic Medium: Gold. Find this Pin and more on THINGS TEUTONIC by Sunnifa Heinreksdottir. Pottery, Cooking Tools, Roman, Tumblers, Celtic Circle, Bronze Age, Virtual Museum, Dinner Ware .. A typical late Bronze Age building from France around to BCE by. The objects are mostly simple tools, made of a “natural“ arsenical copper. . Two unusual gold bracelets were found with a cargo of Bronze Age copper, bronze and tin weapons and ingots dating to the period between BC at a wreck site in .. Frankfurt, Germany (3) Mining archaeology, German Mining-Museum. The objects are mostly simple tools, made of a “natural“ arsenical copper. . Two unusual gold bracelets were found with a cargo of Bronze Age copper, bronze and tin weapons and ingots dating to the period between BC at a wreck site in .. Frankfurt, Germany (3) Mining archaeology, German Mining-Museum.